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A significant part of the agitation surrounding Haymarket after the executions was the continuing appearance in the United States and Europe of publications like these, whether in English, German, or other languages. From various viewpoints and in different rhetorical styles, they questioned the fairness of the trial and the appropriateness of the punishment, honored the convicted men, analyzed the political principles at stake, and recommended forms of action.

The severe punishment of the Haymarket accused did have the effect, however, of subduing the bomb-talking of the early 1880s, as did the conclusion reached by many radicals, even Johann Most, that such rhetoric and tactics were not of practical value in advancing their political ideas.

Before the executions, Chicago attorney Matthew M. Trumbull, whose Trial of the Judgment is on view here, had published the pamphlet Was It a Fair Trial?—An Appeal to the Governor of Illinois. For more on this earlier pamphlet, see "The Cure for Anarchy" entry in the "Public Appeal" section of Act IV.