Click on the image to read the questioning of Haymarket juror Harry Sandford (approximately 3,000 words).

As discussed in the "Gentlemen of the Jury" entry in the "Anarchy on Trial" section of this Act, the attorneys for both sides questioned nearly one thousand jurors before the twelve who tried the case were selected. The defense objected to these twelve, arguing, first of all, that the pool from which they were chosen did not represent the county's population as a whole, as the law prescribed, but consisted almost exclusively of men who were unsympathetic to the defendants (see the "Challenging the Array" entry in the "Anarchy on Trial" section). And, since the defendants exhausted their 160 peremptory challenges before the twelfth and last juror, Harry T. Sandford, was chosen, their lawyers claimed that they had no way to prevent his being seated even though he admitted prejudice.

Included here is the questioning of Sandford [spelled Sanford in the transcript], a clerk for the Northwestern Railroad. Sandford states that he has a "decided prejudice" against anarchist, communist, and socialist principles. When the defense, with no more peremptory challenges, tries to have him dismissed for cause, Judge Gary refuses to do so. The prosecution found him acceptable, and the jury was complete.

The questioning here is typical of that of many potential jurors. The prejudices Sandford expresses are, if anything, milder than those of some of the other jurors who were selected and far less marked than those of the hundreds who were dismissed for cause by Judge Gary.

In Sandford's case the attempt to get him to state that he could try the case fairly on the evidence in spite of his opinions is less strained than it was in many other instances. Judge Gary on occasion became testy when he or the prosecution could not convince a juror with admitted prejudices that he could still assess the case fairly. At the end of one extended interrogation of this kind, Gary said, in apparent frustration, that the potential juror's insistence on the insurmountability of his bias "is incomprehensible to men." Black formally objected to this remark in open court, as he did to many other remarks by the judge and the state's attorney.

Where portions of the testimony are not clear, they are marked XXXX. Transcripts of the interrogation of all twelve of the jurors who were seated are included in the Haymarket Affair Digital Collection.