The Cook County Criminal Courthouse was constructed during the "Great Rebuilding" after the fire of 1871. It was completed in 1874 on Michigan (now Hubbard) and Dearborn Streets three blocks north of the main branch of the Chicago River. Just north of this three-story building sat the two-story Cook County Jail, which bordered on Dearborn and Illinois Streets. These buildings occupied the former site of North Market Hall, while the Haymarket was the name of the old West Market Hall (see the "Urbs in Horto" entry in the "Phoenix City" section of the Prologue).

The city demolished the courthouse building in 1892 to make way for a new six-story building. After the current Cook County Criminal Courthouse was built on the Southwest Side at 26th and California Streets, the 1892 courthouse (by then called 70 West Hubbard) housed the city health department. In 1985 a private developer converted the building into offices under its current name of Courthouse Place. A modern firehouse occupies the spot where the jail once stood.